Diagnostik und Behandlung ausgesuchter akuter Arzneimittelvergiftungen mit hoher klinischer Relevanz

Translated title of the contribution: Diagnostics and treatment of selected clinically relevant, acute drug intoxications

Julia Tschirdewahn, Florian Eyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Acute drug poisoning due to accidental or self-damaging overdoses is responsible for 5–10% of emergency medical interventions in Germany. The treatment of asymptomatic to life-threatening courses requires extensive expertise. On the basis of a selective literature search, this article gives an overview of selected clinically relevant, acute drug poisonings with regard to epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnostics, and therapy. Intoxications with psychotropic drugs are the most common drug intoxications. Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants causes anticholinergic, central nervous, and cardiovascular symptoms. Less toxic are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); the intoxication may be characterized by serotonin syndrome. Malignant neuroleptic syndrome is a severe complication of neuroleptic poisoning. Poisoning with analgesics is clinically relevant due to its high availability. For paracetamol poisoning, intravenous acetylcysteine is available as an antidote. Hemodialysis may be indicated for severe salicylate intoxication. Poisoning with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is usually only associated with mild signs of intoxication. Poisoning with cardiac drugs (β-blockers and calcium antagonists) can cause life-threatening cardiovascular events. In addition to symptomatic therapy, insulin glucose therapy also plays an important role. The majority of acute drug poisonings can be treated adequately by symptomatic and partly intensive care therapy – if necessary with the application of primary and secondary toxin elimination. Depending on the severity of the intoxication, pharmacology-specific therapy must be initiated.

Translated title of the contributionDiagnostics and treatment of selected clinically relevant, acute drug intoxications
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)1313-1323
Number of pages11
JournalBundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz
Volume62
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes

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