Development of auditory brainstem circuitry. Activity-dependent and activity-independent processes

Eckhard Friauf, Christian Lohmann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


Despite its complexity, the neural circuitry in the auditory brainstem of vertebrates displays a fascinating amount of order. How is this order established in such a precise manner during ontogeny? In this review, we will summarize evidence for both activity-independent and activity-dependent processes involved in the generation of the auditory brainstem circuitry of birds and mammals. An example of activity-independent processes is the emergence of crude topography, which, most probably, is determined by molecular markers whose expression is genetically controlled. On the other hand, neuronal activity supports cell survival, affects dendritic and axonal growth, and influences fine tuning of maps. It appears that various types of neuronal activity, namely spontaneous versus acoustically evoked, bilateral versus unilateral, uncoordinated versus patterned, play a role during different aspects of development and cooperate with the activity-independent processes to ensure the proper formation of neuronal circuitry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-195
Number of pages9
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Cochlear nuclear complex
  • Inferior colliculus
  • Molecular markers
  • Sensory-evoked activity
  • Spontaneous activity
  • Superior olivary complex
  • Trophic effects


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