Development, control, and evaluation of an actuated car door

Michael Strolz, Alexander Mörtl, Michael Graf, Martin Buss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Actuated car doors are a promising way to increase the convenience of access to cars. We propose an advanced actuation and control concept which can easily be integrated into conventional car doors. By utilizing a linear, nonbackdrivable actuator and various sensors, both automatic and manual door operations are enabled. A discrete state controller ensures a safe operation of the door, including automatic opening and closing. The realization of a supportive, high-quality haptic interaction with the car door for the manual operation is the principal part of our work. Due to the impracticality of a direct measurement of the user interaction force at a car door, we chose impedance control to render the desired dynamics. The impedance was designed to provide a convenient, intuitive, and safe manual handling of the door. We implemented and tested four different impedance control schemes, of which impedance control with actuator force feedback performed best. Two experimental evaluations with 16 and 27 participants revealed a predominant approval of the actuated car door.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-180
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2009


  • Active impedance
  • Assistance functions
  • Car doors
  • Haptic interaction
  • Impedance control
  • Manual control


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