Design, steady performance and wake characterization of a scaled wind turbine with pitch, torque and yaw actuation

Emmanouil M. Nanos, Carlo L. Bottasso, Filippo Campagnolo, Franz Mühle, Stefano Letizia, G. Valerio Iungo, Mario A. Rotea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This paper describes the design and characterization of a scaled wind turbine model, conceived to support wake and wind farm control experiments in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The turbine has a rotor diameter of 0.6 m and was designed to match the circulation distribution of a target conceptual full-scale turbine at its design tip speed ratio. In order to enable the testing of plant-level control strategies, the model is equipped with pitch, torque and yaw actuation and is sensorized with integrated load cells, rotor azimuth and blade pitch encoders. After describing the design of the turbine, its steady-state performance and wake characteristics are assessed by conducting experiments in two different wind tunnels, in laminar and turbulent conditions, collecting wake data with different measurement techniques. A large-eddy simulator coupled to an actuator-line model is used to develop a digital replica of the turbine and of the wind tunnel. For increased accuracy, the polars of the low-Reynolds-number airfoil used in the numerical model are tuned directly from measurements obtained from the rotor in operation in the wind tunnel. Results indicate that the scaled turbine performs as expected: measurements are repeatable and consistent, and the wake appears to have a realistic behavior in line with expectations and with a similar but slightly larger scaled model turbine. Furthermore, the predictions of the numerical model are well in line with experimental observations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1287
Number of pages25
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 21 Jun 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Design, steady performance and wake characterization of a scaled wind turbine with pitch, torque and yaw actuation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this