Design of highly active heterogeneous palladium catalysts for the activation of aryl chlorides in Heck reactions

Sandra S. Pröckl, Wolfgang Kleist, Klaus Köhler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations

Abstract

In situ generation of highly active palladium species by intermediate dissolution of Pd from solid supported catalysts has been demonstrated to be a very successful approach for the activation of aryl chlorides in Heck reactions. The new 'heterogeneous' Pd catalysts act as reservoir for molecular Pd species with unsaturated coordination sphere in solution. Crucial Pd leaching and re-deposition onto the support can be controlled by optimization of reaction conditions and by the properties of the catalysts. Pd is re-deposited onto the support at the end of the reaction. The catalysts, palladium supported on activated carbon, on various metal oxides or fluorides and Pd complexes in zeolites, are easy to prepare, though the preparation conditions are crucial. The catalysts convert all aryl bromides completely within minutes (TON 100,000). Aryl chlorides (even deactivated ones) are converted with high yields, within 2-6 h. The catalysts belong to the most active ones in Heck reactions at all (including best homogeneous systems) and fulfill all relevant requirements for practical applications in laboratory and industry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9855-9859
Number of pages5
JournalTetrahedron
Volume61
Issue number41
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Oct 2005

Keywords

  • CC coupling
  • Heck reaction
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Palladium

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