Das Verhalten von Kälbern in verschiedenen Haltungsformen.

Translated title of the contribution: The behavior of calves under various housing conditions

G. Riese, G. Klee, H. H. Sambraus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Investigations were performed regarding the length of rest, sucking and feeding and the daily rhythm of these activities in calves kept with their mothers on pasture or in stables and the motility of the calves. Length of rest and feeding in breeding calves kept in groups and length of rest and sucking in breeding and fattening calves (automatic feeding and bucket feeding) were examined too. The examinations were performed starting from the morning feeding to the end of the day over a period of appr. 10.5 to 12 hours. During this time, calves 2--4 weeks of age ran about 550,7 m, 6--8 weeks of age 423.7 and 10--12 weeks of age 388.1 m. The length of sucking under automatic feeding conditions was comparable to the datas obtained from calves kept with their mothers. Bucket feeding took 2--4 minutes regardless whether rubber teats were used or not. Fattening calves in groups or single showed feint sucking or licking activities of 70.0 and 114.0 minutes/day respectively, breeding calves 39.8 and 20.8 minutes/day resp. Feint sucking in connection with a deficit of real sucking was observed regularly under bucket feeding conditions but only in those cases of automatic feeding, where the calves pushed each other aside from the feeding facilities. Feint rumination was observed in all fattening calves when kept strawlessly and lasted for about 31 minutes/day. Neither the feint rumination nor the feint sucking ever reached physiological lengths. Both behavioural patterns may be important in regard to animal welfare considerations of special maintenance conditions.

Translated title of the contributionThe behavior of calves under various housing conditions
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)388-394
Number of pages7
JournalDeutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift
Issue number10
StatePublished - 5 Oct 1977


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