Cotrimoxazole and targeted antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy: a single-center study

Matthias Jahnen, Thomas Amiel, Florian Kirchoff, Jacob W. Büchler, Kathleen Herkommer, Kathrin Rothe, Valentin H. Meissner, Jürgen E. Gschwend, Lukas Lunger

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1 Scopus citations


Purpose: The recent restriction on the use of fluoroquinolones for prophylaxis by the European Commission has left a gap in clear recommendations for practical antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) for transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB). This analysis investigated the viability of cotrimoxazole for PAP in TRPB. Methods: This analysis included n = 697 patients who underwent TRPB for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). All patients received either empiric PAP with four doses of cotrimoxazole 960 mg or targeted antibiotic prophylaxis in case of a positive rectal or urine screening for multiresistant gram-negatives. Infectious complications after TRPB, microbiological findings, and clinical characteristics were evaluated. A multivariable logistic regression model was calculated to identify variables associated with infectious complications. Results: Of the cohort, 86% (600/697) received PAP with cotrimoxazole, 1% (8/697) received cotrimoxazole plus an additional antibiotic, 4% (28/697) received amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, 4% (28/697) received fluoroquinolones, and 5% (33/697) received a single shot intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis with meropenem or piperacillin + tazobactam due to multiresistant microbiological findings in either pre-interventional urine culture or rectal swab. Infectious complications occurred in 2.6% (18/697) of patients. Fever was noted in 89% (16/18) of cases. Inpatient treatment was given to 67% (12/18) of affected patients, with 38% (7/18) having positive blood cultures, identifying cotrimoxazole-resistant E. coli strains in six out of seven cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed no clinically significant variables, including PAP with cotrimoxazole, as independent risk factors for an infectious complication. Conclusions: Using cotrimoxazole as PAP for TRPB in cases without multiresistant gram-negatives in pre-interventional urine cultures or rectal swabs seems feasible and practical.

Original languageEnglish
Article number260
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Cotrimoxazole
  • Prostate biopsy


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