CO2 - intrinsic product, essential substrate, and regulatory trigger of microbial and mammalian production processes

Bastian Blombach, Ralf Takors

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations

Abstract

Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence, CO2/HCO3- dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant CO2/HCO3- levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate-derived products. At the same time, CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular CO2/HCO3- depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressures, aeration, and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local CO2/HCO3- levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of CO2/HCO3- in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity, and transcriptional regulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Volume3
Issue numberAUG
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bicarbonate
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Carboxylation
  • Decarboxylation
  • Production process
  • Regulation

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