Cooperative broadband spin echoes through optimal control

Wolfgang Kallies, Steffen J. Glaser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The Hahn echo sequence is one of the most common building blocks in magnetic resonance, consisting of an excitation pulse and a refocusing pulse. Conventional approaches to improve the performance of echo experiments focused on the optimization of individual pulses, compensating their own imperfections. Here we present an approach to concurrently design both pulses such that they also compensate each others imperfections. The fact that for such cooperative pulses the individual pulses do not need to be perfect provides additional degrees of freedom, resulting in improved overall Hahn echo performance. Single-scan cooperative pulses are compared to conventional approaches by simulations as well as experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-137
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
StatePublished - Jan 2018


  • Cooperative pulses
  • Hahn echo
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Optimal control


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