Computational power of matchgates with supplementary resources

M. Hebenstreit, R. Jozsa, B. Kraus, S. Strelchuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


We study the classical simulation complexity, in both the weak and strong senses, of matchgate (MG) computations supplemented with all combinations of settings involving inclusion of intermediate adaptive or nonadaptive computational basis measurements, product state or magic and general entangled state inputs, and single- or multiple-line outputs. We find a striking parallel to known results for Clifford circuits, after some rebranding of resources. We also give bounds on the amount of classical simulation effort required in the case of limited access to intermediate measurements and entangled inputs. In further settings we show that adaptive MG circuits remain classically efficiently simulable if arbitrary two-qubit entangled input states on consecutive lines are allowed, but become quantum universal for three or more lines. And if adaptive measurements in noncomputational bases are allowed, even with just computational basis inputs, we get quantum universal power again.

Original languageEnglish
Article number052604
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number5
StatePublished - 5 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


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