Compound Heterozygosity of Low-Frequency Promoter Deletions and Rare Loss-of-Function Mutations in TXNL4A Causes Burn-McKeown Syndrome

Dagmar Wieczorek, William G. Newman, Thomas Wieland, Tea Berulava, Maria Kaffe, Daniela Falkenstein, Christian Beetz, Elisabeth Graf, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Sofia Douzgou, Jill Clayton-Smith, Sarah B. Daly, Simon G. Williams, Sanjeev S. Bhaskar, Jill E. Urquhart, Beverley Anderson, James O'Sullivan, Odile Boute, Jasmin Gundlach, Johanna Christina CzeschikAnthonie J. Van Essen, Filiz Hazan, Sarah Park, Anne Hing, Alma Kuechler, Dietmar R. Lohmann, Kerstin U. Ludwig, Elisabeth Mangold, Laura Steenpaß, Michael Zeschnigk, Johannes R. Lemke, Charles Marques Lourenco, Ute Hehr, Eva Christina Prott, Melanie Waldenberger, Anne C. Böhmer, Bernhard Horsthemke, Raymond T. O'Keefe, Thomas Meitinger, John Burn, Hermann Josef Lüdecke, Tim M. Strom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Mutations in components of the major spliceosome have been described in disorders with craniofacial anomalies, e.g., Nager syndrome and mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida. The U5 spliceosomal complex of eight highly conserved proteins is critical for pre-mRNA splicing. We identified biallelic mutations in TXNL4A, a member of this complex, in individuals with Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS). This rare condition is characterized by bilateral choanal atresia, hearing loss, cleft lip and/or palate, and other craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mutations were found in 9 of 11 affected families. In 8 families, affected individuals carried a rare loss-of-function mutation (nonsense, frameshift, or microdeletion) on one allele and a low-frequency 34 bp deletion (allele frequency 0.76%) in the core promoter region on the other allele. In a single highly consanguineous family, formerly diagnosed as oculo-oto-facial dysplasia, the four affected individuals were homozygous for a 34 bp promoter deletion, which differed from the promoter deletion in the other families. Reporter gene and in vivo assays showed that the promoter deletions led to reduced expression of TXNL4A. Depletion of TXNL4A (Dib1) in yeast demonstrated reduced assembly of the tri-snRNP complex. Our results indicate that BMKS is an autosomal-recessive condition, which is frequently caused by compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions in combination with very rare loss-of-function mutations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)698-707
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 4 Dec 2014


Dive into the research topics of 'Compound Heterozygosity of Low-Frequency Promoter Deletions and Rare Loss-of-Function Mutations in TXNL4A Causes Burn-McKeown Syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this