Comparing designers from practice and designers with systematic design education

Joachim Günther, Klaus Ehrlenspiel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


In individual case studies the design processes of so-called p-designers (experienced designers from practice who have neither education at a university nor education in design methodology) were investigated and compared with those of m-designers (designers with education in design methodology at a university). The results are detailed descriptions of the design processes of eight individual cases and a set of hypotheses about the special design behaviour of p-designers. Possible causes for their procedures are discussed. A minimum design guideline for p-designers is suggested to support their design processes. At the end of the paper, the limitations of the study and conclusions for research and design methodology are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-451
Number of pages13
JournalDesign Studies
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1999


  • Case studies
  • Design methodology
  • Design practice
  • Systematic design


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