Comparative genomics of Photobacterium species from terrestrial and marine habitats

Sandra Fuertes-Perez, Rudi F. Vogel, Maik Hilgarth

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Photobacterium (P.) is a genus widely studied in regards to its association with and ubiquitous presence in marine environments. However, certain species (P. phosphoreum, P. carnosum, P. iliopiscarium) have been recently described to colonize and spoil raw meats without a marine link. We have studied 27 strains from meat as well as 26 strains from marine environments in order to probe for intraspecies marine/terrestrial subpopulations and identify distinct genomic features acquired by environmental adaptation. We have conducted phylogenetic analysis (MLSA, ANI, fur, codon usage), search of plasmids (plasmidSPADES), phages (PHASTER), CRISPR-cas operons (CRISPR-finder) and secondary metabolites gene clusters (antiSMASH, BAGEL), in addition to a targeted gene search for specific pathways (e.g. TCA cycle, pentose phosphate, respiratory chain) and elements relevant for growth, adaptation and competition (substrate utilization, motility, bioluminescence, sodium and iron transport). P. carnosum appears as a conserved single clade, with one isolate from MAP fish clustering apart that doesn't, however, show distinct features that could indicate different adaptation. The species harbors genes for a wide carbon source utilization (glycogen/starch, maltose, pullulan, fucose) for colonization of diverse niches in its genome. P. phosphoreum is represented by two different clades on the phylogenetic analyses not correlating to their origin or distribution of other features analyzed that can be divided into two novel subspecies based on genome-wide values. A more diverse antimicrobial activity (sactipeptides, microcins), production of secondary metabolites (siderophores and arylpolyenes), stress response and adaptation (bioluminescence, sodium transporters, catalase, high affinity for oxygen cytochrome cbb3 oxidase, DMSO reductase and proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase) is predicted compared to the other species. P. iliopiscarium was divided into two clades based on source of isolation correlating with phylogeny and distribution of several traits. The species shows traits common to the other two species, similar carbon utilization/transport gene conservation as P. carnosum for the meat-isolated strains, and predicted utilization of marine-common DMSO and flagellar cluster for the sea-isolated strains. Results additionally suggest that photobacteria are highly prone to horizontal acquisition/loss of genetic material and genetic transduction, and that it might be a strategy for increasing the frequency of strain- or species-specific features that offers a growth/competition advantage.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100087
JournalCurrent Research in Microbial Sciences
Volume2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Ecology
  • Genomics
  • Meat spoilage
  • Metabolism
  • Photobacterium

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