Common-ground photovoltaic inverters for leakage current mitigation: Comparative review

Mahmoud A. Gaafar, Mohamed Orabi, Ahmed Ibrahim, Ralph Kennel, Mohamed Abdelrahem

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


In photovoltaic systems, parasitic capacitance is often formed between PV panels and the ground. Because of the switching nature of PV converters, a high-frequency voltage is usually generated over these parasitic capacitances; this, in turn, can result in a common-mode current known as leakage current. This current can badly reach a high value if a resonance circuit is excited through the PV’s parasitic capacitance and the converter’s inductive components. Transformers are usually used for leakage current mitigation. However, this decreases the efficiency and increases the cost, size, and weight of the PV systems. Number of strategies have been introduced to mitigate the leakage current in transformer-less converters. Among these strategies, using common-ground converters is considered the most effective solution as it offers a solid connection between the negative terminal of PV modules and the neutral of the grid side; thus, complete mitigation of the leakage current is achieved. Number of common-ground inverters have been recently presented. These inverters are different in their size, cost, boosting capability, the possibility of producing DC currents, and their capability to offer multilevel shaping of output voltage. This work introduces a comprehensive review and classification for various common-ground PV inverters. Therefore, a clear picture of the advantages and disadvantages of these inverters is clarified. This provides a useful indication for a trade-off between gaining some of the advantages and losing others in PV systems. In addition, the potentials for optimization based on different performance indicators are identified.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11266
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number23
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Common-ground
  • Grid
  • Leakage current
  • Photovoltaic
  • Transformer-less


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