Challenges facing an understanding of the nature of low-energy excited states in photosynthesis

Jeffrey R. Reimers, Malgorzata Biczysko, Douglas Bruce, David F. Coker, Terry J. Frankcombe, Hideki Hashimoto, Jürgen Hauer, Ryszard Jankowiak, Tobias Kramer, Juha Linnanto, Fikret Mamedov, Frank Müh, Margus Rätsep, Thomas Renger, Stenbjörn Styring, Jian Wan, Zhuan Wang, Zheng Yu Wang-Otomo, Yu Xiang Weng, Chunhong YangJian Ping Zhang, Arvi Freiberg, Elmars Krausz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


While the majority of the photochemical states and pathways related to the biological capture of solar energy are now well understood and provide paradigms for artificial device design, additional low-energy states have been discovered in many systems with obscure origins and significance. However, as low-energy states are naively expected to be critical to function, these observations pose important challenges. A review of known properties of low energy states covering eight photochemical systems, and options for their interpretation, are presented. A concerted experimental and theoretical research strategy is suggested and outlined, this being aimed at providing a fully comprehensive understanding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1627-1640
Number of pages14
JournalBBA - Bioenergetics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Charge transfer
  • Excited states
  • Exciton coupling
  • Non-photochemical quenching
  • Photosynthesis
  • Primary charge separation


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