Center of pressure (COP) measurement in patients with confirmed successful outcomes following shoulder surgery show significant sensorimotor deficits

Yannick J. Ehmann, Daniel P. Berthold, Sven Reuter, Knut Beitzel, Robin Köhler, Fabian Stöcker, Lukas N. Muench, Jonas Pogorzelski, Marco Christopher Rupp, Sepp Braun, Andreas B. Imhoff, Stefan Buchmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To determine the sensorimotor and clinical function of patients with confirmed successful outcome after either undergoing acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) stabilization, Bankart repair (BR), or rotator cuff repair (RC), and to compare these measures to the contralateral, healthy side without history of previous injuries or surgeries of the upper extremity. It was hypothesized that patients of each interventional group would have inferior sensorimotor function of the shoulder joint compared to the contralateral, healthy side, while presenting with successful clinical and functional outcomes. Methods: Three intervention groups including ten patients who had confirmed successful clinical and functional outcomes after either undergoing ACJ stabilization, BR, or RC were evaluated postoperatively at an average follow-up of 31.7 ± 11.6 months. Additionally, a healthy control group (CG) of ten patients was included. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Constant–Murley (CM) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score. Pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensorimotor function was assessed by determining the center of pressure (COP) of the shoulder joint in a one-handed support task in supine position on a validated pressure plate. Results: Each interventional group demonstrated excellent clinical outcome scores including the CM Score (ACJ 83.3 ± 11.8; BR 89.0 ± 10.3; RC 81.4 ± 8.8), ASES Score (ACJ 95.5 ± 7.0; BR 92.5 ± 9.6; RC 96.5 ± 5.2), and VAS (ACJ 0.5 ± 0.9; BR 0.5 ± 0.8; RC 0.5 ± 0.8). Overall, the CG showed no significant side-to-side difference in COP, whereas the ACJ-group and the BR-group demonstrated significantly increased COP compared to the healthy side (ACJ 103 cm vs. 98 cm, p = 0.049; BR: 116 cm vs. 102 cm, p = 0.006). The RC-group revealed no significant side-to-side difference (120 cm vs. 108 cm, n.s.). Conclusion: Centre of pressure measurement detected sensorimotor functional deficits following surgical treatment of the shoulder joint in patients with confirmed successful clinical and functional outcomes. This may indicate that specific postoperative training and rehabilitation protocols should be established for patients who underwent surgery of the upper extremity. These results underline that sensorimotor training should be an important component of postoperative rehabilitation and physiotherapeutic activities to improve postoperative function and joint control. Level of evidence: IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2060-2066
Number of pages7
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • COP
  • Centre of pressure
  • Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation of shoulder
  • Sensorimotor function
  • Shoulder injury


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