Cardiac function and perfusion dynamics measured on a beat-by-beat basis in the live mouse using ultra-fast 4D optoacoustic imaging

Steven J. Ford, Xosé Luís Deán-Ben, Daniel Razansky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The fast heart rate (∼7 Hz) of the mouse makes cardiac imaging and functional analysis difficult when studying mouse models of cardiovascular disease, and cannot be done truly in real-time and 3D using established imaging modalities. Optoacoustic imaging, on the other hand, provides ultra-fast imaging at up to 50 volumetric frames per second, allowing for acquisition of several frames per mouse cardiac cycle. In this study, we combined a recently-developed 3D optoacoustic imaging array with novel analytical techniques to assess cardiac function and perfusion dynamics of the mouse heart at high, 4D spatiotemporal resolution. In brief, the heart of an anesthetized mouse was imaged over a series of multiple volumetric frames. In another experiment, an intravenous bolus of indocyanine green (ICG) was injected and its distribution was subsequently imaged in the heart. Unique temporal features of the cardiac cycle and ICG distribution profiles were used to segment the heart from background and to assess cardiac function. The 3D nature of the experimental data allowed for determination of cardiac volumes at ∼7-8 frames per mouse cardiac cycle, providing important cardiac function parameters (e.g. stroke volume, ejection fraction) on a beat-by-beat basis, which has been previously unachieved by any other cardiac imaging modality. Furthermore, ICG distribution dynamics allowed for the determination of pulmonary transit time and thus additional quantitative measures of cardiovascular function. This work demonstrates the potential for optoacoustic cardiac imaging and is expected to have a major contribution toward future preclinical studies of animal models of cardiovascular health and disease.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhotons Plus Ultrasound
Subtitle of host publicationImaging and Sensing 2015
EditorsAlexander A. Oraevsky, Lihong V. Wang
ISBN (Electronic)9781628414134
StatePublished - 2015
EventPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 8 Feb 201510 Feb 2015

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferencePhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Cardiac imaging
  • Contrast agents
  • Indocyanine green
  • Mouse heart
  • Optoacoustic imaging
  • Optoacoustics


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