Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins regulate melanocyte differentiation

Archit Trivedi, Aanchal Mehrotra, Caitlin E. Baum, Brandon Lewis, Tupa Basuroy, Thomas Blomquist, Robert Trumbly, Fabian V. Filipp, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Ivana L. De La Serna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background: Pharmacologic inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins is currently being explored as a new therapeutic approach in cancer. Some studies have also implicated BET proteins as regulators of cell identity and differentiation through their interactions with lineage-specific factors. However, the role of BET proteins has not yet been investigated in melanocyte differentiation. Melanocyte inducing transcription factor (MITF) is the master regulator of melanocyte differentiation, essential for pigmentation and melanocyte survival. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BET proteins regulate melanocyte differentiation through interactions with MITF. Results: Here we show that chemical inhibition of BET proteins prevents differentiation of unpigmented melanoblasts into pigmented melanocytes and results in de-pigmentation of differentiated melanocytes. BET inhibition also slowed cell growth, without causing cell death, increasing the number of cells in G1. Transcriptional profiling revealed that BET inhibition resulted in decreased expression of pigment-specific genes, including many MITF targets. The expression of pigment-specific genes was also down-regulated in melanoma cells, but to a lesser extent. We found that RNAi depletion of the BET family members, bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) inhibited expression of two melanin synthesis enzymes, TYR and TYRP1. Both BRD4 and BRD2 were detected on melanocyte promoters surrounding MITF-binding sites, were associated with open chromatin structure, and promoted MITF binding to these sites. Furthermore, BRD4 and BRD2 physically interacted with MITF. Conclusion: These findings indicate a requirement for BET proteins in the regulation of pigmentation and melanocyte differentiation. We identified changes in pigmentation specific gene expression that occur upon BET inhibition in melanoblasts, melanocytes, and melanoma cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
JournalEpigenetics and Chromatin
Issue number1
StatePublished - 10 Mar 2020


  • BET
  • BRD4
  • Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain
  • ChIP-Seq
  • Epigenomics
  • JQ1
  • MITF
  • Melanocyte differentiation
  • Melanoma
  • Pigmentation
  • Systems biology
  • Transcriptional networks


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