Brassinosteroid-regulated bHLH transcription factor CESTA induces the gibberellin 2-oxidase GA2ox7

Pablo Albertos, Tanja Wlk, Jayne Griffiths, Maria J. Pimenta Lange, Simon J. Unterholzner, Wilfried Rozhon, Theo Lange, Alexander M. Jones, Brigitte Poppenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroids that have growth-promoting capacities, which are partly enabled by an ability to induce biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs), a second class of plant hormones. In addition, BRs can also activate GA catabolism; here we show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor CESTA (CES) and its homologues BRASSINOSTEROID-ENHANCED EXPRESSION (BEE) 1 and 3 contribute to this activity. CES and the BEEs are BR-regulated at the transcriptional and posttranslational level and participate in different physiological processes, including vegetative and reproduction development, shade avoidance, and cold stress responses. We show that CES/BEEs can induce the expression of the class III GA 2-oxidase GA2ox7 and that this activity is increased by BRs. In BR signaling — and CES/BEE-deficient mutants, GA2ox7 expression decreased, yielding reduced levels of GA110, a product of GA2ox7 activity. In plants that over-express CES, GA2ox7 expression is hyper-responsive to BR, GA110 levels are elevated and amounts of bioactive GA are reduced. We provide evidence that CES directly binds to the GA2ox7 promoter and is activated by BRs, but can also act by BR-independent means. Based on these results, we propose a model for CES activity in GA catabolism where CES can be recruited for GA2ox7 induction not only by BR, but also by other factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2012-2025
Number of pages14
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


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