Bitter-tasting and kokumi-enhancing molecules in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

Andreas Georg Degenhardt, Thomas Hofmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Sequential application of solvent extraction and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses (TDA) and comparative TDA, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of 10 C17-C21 oxylipins with 1,2,4-trihydroxy-, 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-, and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motifs, respectively, besides 1-O-stearoyl-glycerol and 1-O-linoleoyl-glycerol as bitter-tasting compounds in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.). On the basis of quantitative data, dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, and taste re-engineering experiments, these phytochemicals, among which 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-octadeca-12-ene was found with the highest taste impact, were confirmed to be the key contributors to the bitter off-taste developed upon thermal processing of avocado. For the first time, those C17-C21 oxylipins exhibiting a 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-and a 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motif, respectively, were discovered to induce a mouthfulness (kokumi)-enhancing activity in sub-bitter threshold concentrations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12906-12915
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number24
StatePublished - 22 Dec 2010


  • Taste
  • avocado
  • bitterness
  • kokumi
  • taste dilution analysis
  • taste enhancer


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