Biosynthesis of 15N3-labeled enniatins and beauvericin and their application to stable isotope dilution assays

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The first stable isotope dilution assay for the determination of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 and beauvericin was developed. The 15N 3-labeled enniatins and beauvericin were biosynthesized by feeding two Fusarium strains Na15NO3 and subsequently isolated from the fungal culture. The chemical structures of the biosynthesized products were characterized by LC-MS/MS and 1H NMR. Standard solutions of 15N3-labeled beauvericin, enniatin A, and enniatin A1 were accurately quantitated by quantitative NMR. On the basis of the use of the labeled products as internal standards, stable isotope dilution assays were developed and applied to various food samples using LC-MS/MS. The sample extracts were directly injected without any tedious cleanup procedures. The limits of detection were 3.9, 2.6, 3.7, 1.9, and 4.4 μg/kg for enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 and beauvericin, respectively. Limits of quantitation were 11.5 (enniatin A), 7.6 (enniatin A1), 10.9 (enniatin B), 5.8 (enniatin B1), and 13.1 μ/kg (beauvericin). Recoveries were within the range between 90 and 120%, and good intraday and interday precisions with coefficients of variation between 1.35 and 8.61% were obtained. Thus, the stable isotope dilution assay presented here is similarly sensitive and precise but more accurate than assays reported before. Analyses of cereals and cereal products revealed frequent contaminations of barley, wheat, rye, and oats with enniatins B and B1, whereas beauvericin was not quantifiable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7129-7136
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number29
StatePublished - 25 Jul 2012


  • Beauvericin
  • Fusarium
  • LC-MS/MS
  • biosynthesis
  • enniatins
  • quantitative NMR
  • stable isotope dilution assay


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