Biological effects of four iron-containing nanoremediation materials on the green alga Chlamydomonas sp.

Nhung H.A. Nguyen, Nadia R. Von Moos, Vera I. Slaveykova, Katrin Mackenzie, Rainer U. Meckenstock, Silke Thűmmler, Julian Bosch, Alena Ševců

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

As nanoremediation strategies for in-situ groundwater treatment extend beyond nanoiron-based applications to adsorption and oxidation, ecotoxicological evaluations of newly developed materials are required. The biological effects of four new materials with different iron (Fe) speciations ([i] FerMEG12 - pristine flake-like milled Fe(0) nanoparticles (nZVI), [ii] Carbo-Iron® - Fe(0)-nanoclusters containing activated carbon (AC) composite, [iii] Trap-Ox® Fe-BEA35 (Fe-zeolite) - Fe-doped zeolite, and [iv] Nano-Goethite - ‘pure’ FeOOH) were studied using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas sp. as a model test system. Algal growth rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, efficiency of photosystem II, membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed following exposure to 10, 50 and 500 mg L−1 of the particles for 2 h and 24 h. The particles had a concentration-, material- and time-dependent effect on Chlamydomonas sp., with increased algal growth rate after 24 h. Conversely, significant intracellular ROS levels were detected after 2 h, with much lower levels after 24 h. All Fe-nanomaterials displayed similar Z-average sizes and zeta-potentials at 2 h and 24 h. Effects on Chlamydomonas sp. decreased in the order FerMEG12 > Carbo-Iron® > Fe-zeolite > Nano-Goethite. Ecotoxicological studies were challenged due to some particle properties, i.e. dark colour, effect of constituents and a tendency to agglomerate, especially at high concentrations. All particles exhibited potential to induce significant toxicity at high concentrations (500 mg L−1), though such concentrations would rapidly decrease to mg or µg L−1 in aquatic environments, levels harmless to Chlamydomonas sp. The presented findings contribute to the practical usage of particle-based nanoremediation in environmental restoration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-44
Number of pages9
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume154
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biological effect
  • Carbo‐Iron
  • Chlamydomonas sp.
  • FerMEG12
  • Nano‐Goethite
  • Trap-Ox Fe-zeolite

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