Bill It Right: Evaluating Public Charging Station Usage Behavior under the Presence of Different Pricing Policies

Markus Fischer, Wibke Michalk, Cornelius Hardt, Klaus Bogenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates for the first time how public charging infrastructure usage differs under the presence of diverse pricing models. About 3 million charging events from different European countries were classified according to five different pricing models (cost-free, flat-rate, time-based, energy-based, and mixed) and evaluated using various performance indicators such as connection duration; transferred energy volumes; average power; achievable revenue; and the share of charging and idle time for AC, DC, and HPC charging infrastructure. The study results show that the performance indicators differed for the classified pricing models. In addition to the quantitative comparison of the performance indicators, a Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a pairwise comparison using the Mann–Whitney-U test were used to show that the data distributions of the defined pricing models were statistically significantly different. The results are discussed from various perspectives on the efficient design of public charging infrastructure. The results show that time-based pricing models can improve the availability of public charging infrastructure, as the connection duration per charging event can be roughly halved compared to other pricing models. Flat-rate pricing models and AC charging infrastructure can support the temporal shift of charging events, such as shifting demand peaks, as charging events usually have several hours of idle time per charging process. By quantifying various performance indicators for different charging technologies and pricing models, the study is relevant for stakeholders involved in the development and operation of public charging infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number175
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • charging tariffs
  • electric vehicles
  • pricing mechanisms
  • pricing models
  • pricing of PEV charging
  • pricing policy
  • usage behavior of charging infrastructure


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