Augmented Reality Head-Up Display: A Visual Support During Malfunctions in Partially Automated Driving?

Alexander Feierle, Fabian Schlichtherle, Klaus Bengler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Malfunctions are a major challenge in partially automated driving. During such malfunctions, the driver must be able to adequately take over vehicle guidance without being requested to intervene. This may be particularly difficult in urban areas due to their high complexity and information density. Augmented Reality Head-Up Displays (ARHUDs) may have the potential to support the driver during the monitoring task by providing driving-related information at its required location in the primary field of view. The effects of an ARHUD compared to a Baseline concept in case of malfunctions were investigated in a driving simulation experiment with 52 participants. In a partially automated urban drive, participants experienced a longitudinal and a lateral malfunction in permuted order. The concepts-ARHUD or Baseline-were presented as a between-subject factor. The results showed significantly shorter take-over times when using the ARHUD, resulting in fewer crashes. For those who were able to avoid the crash, no differences in the take-over quality between both concepts were found. There was one difference in visual attention: the attention ratio on the instrument cluster was lower for the ARHUD. In addition, the ARHUD revealed a significantly higher trust and usability rating. However, there were no differences in acceptance and subjective workload between the two concepts. The results showed that the ARHUD has more potential to prevent crashes in the event of malfunctions compared to the Baseline. Nevertheless, the high number of crashes, regardless of the concept, showed the importance of a fallback level for partially automated urban driving.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4853-4865
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2022


  • Augmented reality head-up display
  • automated driving
  • human-machine interface
  • malfunction
  • take-over performance


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