Applications of 1.55 μm optically injection-locked VCSELs in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks

Elaine Wong, Xiaoxue Zhao, Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, Werner Hofmann, Marcus C. Amann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


In this paper, we will discuss the utilization of optically injection-locked (OIL) 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for operation as low-cost, stable, directly modulated, and potentially uncooled transmitters, whereby the injection-locking master source is furnished by modulated downstream signals. Such a transmitter will find useful application in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) which is actively being developed to meet the ever-increasing bandwidth demands of end users. Our scheme eliminates the need for external injection locking optical sources, external modulators, and wavelength stabilization circuitry. We show through experiments that the injection-locked VCSEL favors low injection powers and responds only strongly to the carrier but not the modulated data of the downstream signal. Further, we will discuss results from experimental studies performed on the dependence of OIL-VCSELs in bidirectional networks on the degree of Rayleigh backscattered signal and extinction ratio. We show that error-free upstream performance can be achieved when the upstream signal to Rayleigh backscattering ratio is greater than 13.4 dB, and with minimal dependence on the downstream extinction ratio. We will also review a fault monitoring and localization scheme based on a highly-sensitive yet low-cost monitor comprising a low output power broadband source and low bandwidth detectors. The proposed scheme benefits from the high reflectivity top distributed Bragg reflector mirror of the OIL-VCSEL, incurring only a minimal penalty on the upstream transmissions of the existing infrastructure. Such a scheme provides fault monitoring without having to further invest in the upgrade of customer premises.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOptical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V
StatePublished - 2007
EventOptical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V - Wuhan, China
Duration: 2 Nov 20075 Nov 2007

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


ConferenceOptical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V


  • Fault localization and monitoring
  • Optical injection locking
  • Passive optical networks
  • Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers
  • Wavelength division multiplexing


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