Application of CO2 Gas Hydrates as Leavening Agents in Black-and-White Cookies

Ann Mary Kollemparembil, Shubhangi Srivastava, Viktoria Zettel, Bernhard Gatternig, Antonio Delgado, Mario Jekle, Bernd Hitzmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this unprecedented study, the application of CO2 gas hydrates (GH) as a leavening agent to produce black-and-white cookies by replacing ammonium bicarbonate is investigated. Ammonium bicarbonate, the principal leavening ingredient in black-and-white cookies, has been linked to the creation of a carcinogenic substance known as acrylamide. Three distinct GH concentrations, 20%, 40%, and 50%, were utilized to determine the necessary amount to obtain a good leavening effect. However, the abrupt reduction in temperature brought on by the addition of GH had an inadmissible effect on the cookie dough. Consequently, an innovative kneading method carried out in a closed mixing unit at a high temperature was developed. The specific volume of the cookies when employing 50% GH as a baking agent was more than half that produced when using ammonium bicarbonate. In the cookies with GH, the springiness and hardness, which are the quality-determining textural characteristics of the pastry, remained within an acceptable range. The amount of acrylamide was reduced from 24.8 µg/Kg to around 18 µg/Kg by this research. Therefore, the presented study demonstrates the possibility of using CO2 GH as a leavening agent in black-and-white cookies and in other products for a healthier future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2797
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • acrylamide
  • ammonium bicarbonate
  • baking
  • black-and-white cookie
  • gas hydrate
  • leavening agent


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