Animal pharming, two decades on

Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Since its inception 20 years ago, the animal pharming industry has promoted transgenic animals as a cost-effective method of biopharmaceutical production. However, it took until 2006 for the first therapeutic product to gain regulatory approval. This was an important milestone, but scepticism still abounds. Can pharming regain investor confidence, and will society accept transgenic livestock as a production method? There is some cause for optimism, biopharmaceuticals are a large, expanding market and animal pharming has already made considerable strides. A novel production platform has been established, groundbreaking technologies developed, a necessary regulatory framework put in place. Nevertheless, despite cost advantages, pharming has become a niche production method and its long term success may depend on products unique to transgenic animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1025-1033
Number of pages9
JournalTransgenic Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2008


  • Antibodies
  • Biopharmaceuticals
  • Milk
  • Pharming
  • Transgenic animals


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