Analysis on the Vulnerability of a Tunnel Entrance under Internal Explosion

Zichao Liu, Jun Wu, Qinyi Chen, Shutao Li, Qiushi Yan, Haitao Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Tunnels play an essential role in the transportation network. Tunnel entrances are usually buried at a shallow depth. In the event of an internal explosion, the blast pressure will cause severe damage or even collapse of the tunnel entrance, paralyzing the traffic system. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the damage level of tunnel entrances under internal blast loading can provide effective assistance for the anti-blast design of tunnels, post-disaster emergency response, and economic damage assessment. In this paper, four tunnel entrance specimens were designed and fabricated with a scale ratio of 1/5.5, and a series of field blast tests were carried out to examine the damage pattern of the tunnel entrances under internal explosion. Subsequently, static loading tests were conducted to obtain the maximum bearing capacity of the intact specimen and residual bearing capacities of the post-blast specimens. After that, an explicit non-linear analysis was carried out and a numerical finite element (FE) model of the tunnel entrance under internal blast loading was established by adopting the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) method and validated based on the data obtained from the field blast and static loading tests. A probabilistic vulnerability analysis of a typical tunnel entrance subjected to stochastic internal explosions (assuming various charge weights and detonation points) was then carried out with the validated FE model. For the purpose of damage assessment, the residual bearing capacity of the tunnel entrance was taken as the damage criterion. The vulnerability curves corresponding to various damage levels were further developed based on the stochastic data from the probabilistic vulnerability analysis. When the charge weight was 200 kg, the tunnel entrance exhibited slight or moderate damage, while the tunnel entrance suffered severe or even complete damage as the charge weight increased to 1000 kg. However, the tunnel entrance’s probability of complete damage was less than 10% when the TNT charge weight did not exceed 1000 kg.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9727
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • internal explosion
  • residual bearing capacity
  • tunnel entrance
  • vulnerability analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'Analysis on the Vulnerability of a Tunnel Entrance under Internal Explosion'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this