An Excitation-Aware and Self-Adaptive Frequency Normalization for Low-Frequency Stabilized Electric Field Integral Equation Formulations

Bernd Hofmann, Thomas F. Eibert, Francesco P. Andriulli, Simon B. Adrian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The accurate solution of quasi-Helmholtz decomposed electric field integral equations (EFIEs) in the presence of arbitrary excitations is addressed: Depending on the specific excitation, the quasi-Helmholtz components of the induced current density do not have the same asymptotic scaling in frequency, and thus, the current components are solved for with, in general, different relative accuracies. In order to ensure the same asymptotic scaling, we propose a frequency normalization scheme of quasi-Helmholtz decomposed EFIEs, which adapts itself to the excitation and which is valid irrespective of the specific excitation and irrespective of the underlying topology of the structure. Specifically, neither an ad hoc adaption nor a priori information about the excitation is needed as the scaling factors are derived based on the norms of the right-hand side (RHS) components and the frequency. Numerical results corroborate the presented theory and show the effectiveness of our approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4301-4314
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Volume71
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2023

Keywords

  • Broadband
  • electric field integral equation (EFIE)
  • integral equations
  • loop star
  • loop tree
  • low frequency
  • multiply connected
  • near field (NF)
  • quasi-Helmholtz projectors

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