An evolutionary approach to middle-ear prostheses

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3 Scopus citations


The erroneous idea that mammalian three-ossicle middle ears are superior to single-ossicle ones has influenced thinking about prostheses. Evolutionary facts and measurements indicate that single-ossicle ears are equivalent and more flexible, supporting - in spite of new technological reconstruction techniques – their continued use as prostheses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108144
JournalHearing Research
StatePublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Area ratio
  • Columella
  • Curved-membrane effect
  • Impedance matching
  • Lever ratio
  • Single ossicle
  • Three ossicles


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