AllesTM: Predicting multiple structural features of transmembrane proteins

Peter Hönigschmid, Stephan Breimann, Martina Weigl, Dmitrij Frishman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: This study is motivated by the following three considerations: a) the physico-chemical properties of transmembrane (TM) proteins are distinctly different from those of globular proteins, necessitating the development of specialized structure prediction techniques, b) for many structural features no specialized predictors for TM proteins are available at all, and c) deep learning algorithms allow to automate the feature engineering process and thus facilitate the development of multi-target methods for predicting several protein properties at once. Results: We present AllesTM, an integrated tool to predict almost all structural features of transmembrane proteins that can be extracted from atomic coordinate data. It blends several machine learning algorithms: random forests and gradient boosting machines, convolutional neural networks in their original form as well as those enhanced by dilated convolutions and residual connections, and, finally, long short-term memory architectures. AllesTM outperforms other available methods in predicting residue depth in the membrane, flexibility, topology, relative solvent accessibility in its bound state, while in torsion angles, secondary structure and monomer relative solvent accessibility prediction it lags only slightly behind the currently leading technique SPOT-1D. High accuracy on a multitude of prediction targets and easy installation make AllesTM a one-stop shop for many typical problems in the structural bioinformatics of transmembrane proteins. Conclusions: In addition to presenting a highly accurate prediction method and eliminating the need to install and maintain many different software tools, we also provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of different machine learning algorithms and parameter choices on the prediction performance. AllesTM is freely available at

Original languageEnglish
Article number242
JournalBMC Bioinformatics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 12 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Machine learning
  • Protein evolution
  • Protein structure prediction
  • Transmembrane proteins


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