Air-Liquid Interface in Vitro Models for Respiratory Toxicology Research: Consensus Workshop and Recommendations

Ghislaine Lacroix, Wolfgang Koch, Detlef Ritter, Arno C. Gutleb, Søren Thor Larsen, Thomas Loret, Filippo Zanetti, Samuel Constant, Savvina Chortarea, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Pieter S. Hiemstra, Emeric Frejafon, Philippe Hubert, Laura Gribaldo, Peter Kearns, Jean Marc Aublant, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss, Antoinette De Groot, Ingeborg Kooter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

147 Scopus citations


In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) cell culture models can potentially be used to assess inhalation toxicology endpoints and are usually considered, in terms of relevancy, between classic (i.e., submerged) in vitro models and animal-based models. In some situations that need to be clearly defined, ALI methods may represent a complement or an alternative option to in vivo experimentations or classic in vitro methods. However, it is clear that many different approaches exist and that only very limited validation studies have been carried out to date. This means comparison of data from different methods is difficult and available methods are currently not suitable for use in regulatory assessments. This is despite inhalation toxicology being a priority area for many governmental organizations. In this setting, a 1-day workshop on ALI in vitro models for respiratory toxicology research was organized in Paris in March 2016 to assess the situation and to discuss what might be possible in terms of validation studies. The workshop was attended by major parties in Europe and brought together more than 60 representatives from various academic, commercial, and regulatory organizations. Following plenary, oral, and poster presentations, an expert panel was convened to lead a discussion on possible approaches to validation studies for ALI inhalation models. A series of recommendations were made and the outcomes of the workshop are reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-106
Number of pages16
JournalApplied In Vitro Toxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • air-liquid interface
  • in vitro
  • inhalation
  • lung cell models
  • toxicology
  • validation


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