Accomplices of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment compromising antitumor immunity: Adenosine, lactate, acidosis, vascular endothelial growth factor, potassium ions, and phosphatidylserine

Peter Vaupel, Gabriele Multhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

59 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this minireview, we aim to highlight key factors of the tumor microenvironment, including adenosine, lactate, acidosis, vascular endothelial growth factor, phosphatidylserine, high extracellular K+ levels, and tumor hypoxia with respect to antitumor immune functions. Most solid tumors have an immature chaotic microvasculature that results in tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia is a key determinant of tumor aggressiveness and therapy resistance and hypoxia-related gene products can thwart antitumor immune responses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1887
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume8
Issue numberDEC
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acidosis
  • Adenosine
  • Antitumor immunity
  • Lactate
  • Phosphatidylserine
  • Potassium ions
  • Tumor hypoxia
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor

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