Acceptance of Remote Assistive Robots with and without Human-in-the-Loop for Healthcare Applications

Simone Nertinger, Robin Jeanne Kirschner, Abdeldjallil Naceri, Sami Haddadin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Assistive social robots aim to facilitate outpatient-care including required safety critical measures. Accepting a robot to perform such measures, e.g., operate in close physical interaction for medical examinations, requires human trust towards the robot. Human-in-the-loop (HIL) applications where the robot is teleoperated by a human expert can help the person to accept even risky tasks performed by a robot. Therefore, the assistive humanoid GARMI was designed to enable HIL applications with varying autonomy. In this study, we use GARMI to understand which tasks in the framework of care may be accepted depending on human socio-demographics and user beliefs as well as the level of robot autonomy. Firstly, we seek to understand the general acceptance of GARMI using the Almere questionnaire. Secondly, we ask adults to rate their willingness to use several functionalities of GARMI. Lastly, we investigate the effect of the introduction method of GARMI on user acceptance. We assemble all relevant factors on acceptance to provide direction in the user-centered design process of assistive robots. The results of 166 participants show that alongside others, trust towards the robot and utilitarian variables such as perceived usefulness are the most influencing factors on the acceptance of GARMI and should be considered for the design of robotic semi-autonomous outpatient-services.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Social Robotics
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Acceptance
  • Assistive social robot
  • Healthcare
  • Human-in-the-loop


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