A toxicological and dermatological assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients

D. Belsito, D. Bickers, M. Bruze, P. Calow, M. L. Dagli, A. D. Fryer, H. Greim, Y. Miyachi, J. H. Saurat, I. G. Sipes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The alkyl cyclic ketone (ACK) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. ACK fragrance materials demonstrate low acute toxicity. Upon repeat dose testing, some adverse effects in biochemical and hematological parameters, and slightly increased liver and kidney weights were reported, primarily at high doses, resulting from adaptive effects. Developmental effects occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity. Assays in bacteria and mammalian cell systems and the mouse micronucleus assay did not demonstrate genotoxicity. ACK fragrance ingredients are considered non-irritating to the skin of humans; results showed few reactions, most of which were equivocal or involved doses greater than those in consumer products. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal tests was observed with most compounds; however, full recovery was usually observed. Human sensitization studies indicate that ACK fragrance ingredients have a low sensitization potential. Diagnostic patch-tests indicated low sensitizing potential in humans; except for fragrance materials which caused reactions at 1% or 5%. Phototoxicity and photosensitization were not demonstrated in humans, and, with the possible exception of acetyl cedrene, would not be expected. It is concluded that ACK materials do not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S1-S44
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
StatePublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Alkyl cyclic ketone
  • Assessment
  • Dermatology
  • Group summary
  • Toxicology


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