A Survey on Cooperative Architectures and Maneuvers for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Bernhard Hafner, Vaibhav Bajpai, Jorg Ott, Georg A. Schmitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


With increasing connectivity, more and more advanced forms of cooperation among vehicles have become possible. Research has shown that vehicle-to-vehicle communication can improve road safety. However, more recent research advances regarding complex interactions such as cooperative maneuver negotiation have not yet gained much attention. Thus, in this survey, we analyze proposals for maneuver coordination protocols among automated vehicles. We include the communication, computation, and decision-making architectures commonly employed and a categorization scheme for different application-layer protocols enabling cooperative maneuvers. Next, we summarize related standardization, industry alliances, and research projects. As this field of research is still emerging, we also identify the diverse challenges that lie ahead before cooperative maneuver negotiations among automated vehicles can become a reality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-403
Number of pages24
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Automated driving
  • automated vehicles
  • cooperation
  • cooperative maneuvers
  • joint maneuvers
  • maneuver negotiation
  • vehicle-to-everything (V2X)
  • vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V)
  • vehicular communication
  • vehicular networks


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