A Review of 13 years of experience with endoscopic forehead-lift

Nikolaos A. Papadopulos, Maximilian Eder, Christian Weigand, Edgar Biemer, Laszlo Kovacs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective: To conduct objective quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the long-term result in endoscopic forehead-lift. Methods: Medical charts of 143 patients who underwent endoscopic forehead-lift between 1994 and 2007 were reviewed for postoperative complications and the duration of complaints. Patients received a questionnaire to evaluate satisfaction and social restriction after surgery. Objective photographic preoperative and postoperative eyebrow-to-eye distances in a relaxed position and during muscle contractions were obtained. Results:Atotal of 98 patients (69% response; mean followup, 38 months) showed high satisfaction (score, 7.1 of 10). In a relaxed position, mean midpupil-to-eyebrow elevation was 5.6 mm after surgery, with significant eyebrow symmetry between the left and right eyes (P <0.5), and showed significant influence of time (P=.005) on persisting eyebrow elevation, with a decrease of almost 1mmper year. Measurements during muscle contraction showed no relevant differences. Conclusion: Endoscopic forehead-lift enables longlasting results with highly satisfied patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-341
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Facial Plastic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes


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