A Reference Architecture of Human Cyber-Physical Systems Part I: Fundamental Concepts

Werner Damm, David Hess, Mark Schweda, Janos Sztipanovits, Klaus Bengler, Bianca Biebl, Martin Fränzle, Willem Hagemann, Moritz Held, Klas Ihme, Severin Kacianka, Alyssa J. Kerscher, Sebastian Lehnhoff, Andreas Luedtke, Alexander Pretschner, Astrid Rakow, Jochem Rieger, Daniel Sonntag, Maike Schwammberger, Benedikt AustelAnirudh Unni, Eric Veith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We propose a reference architecture of safety-critical or industry-critical human cyber-physical systems (CPSs) capable of expressing essential classes of system-level interactions between CPS and humans relevant for the societal acceptance of such systems. To reach this quality gate, the expressivity of the model must go beyond classical viewpoints such as operational, functional, and architectural views and views used for safety and security analysis. The model does so by incorporating elements of such systems for mutual introspections in situational awareness, capabilities, and intentions to enable a synergetic, trusted relation in the interaction of humans and CPSs, which we see as a prerequisite for their societal acceptance. The reference architecture is represented as a metamodel incorporating conceptual and behavioral semantic aspects. We illustrate the key concepts of the metamodel with examples from cooperative autonomous driving, the operating room of the future, cockpit-tower interaction, and crisis management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2
JournalACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - 14 Jan 2024


  • Real-time systems
  • architecture
  • cyber-physical systems
  • interaction design


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