A proposed unified framework to describe the management of biological invasions

Peter A. Robertson, Aileen Mill, Ana Novoa, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Franz Essl, Belinda Gallardo, Juergen Geist, Ivan Jarić, Xavier Lambin, Camille Musseau, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Menja von Schmalensee, Mark Shirley, David L. Strayer, Robert A. Stefansson, Kevin Smith, Olaf Booy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Managing the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) is a great societal challenge. A wide variety of terms have been used to describe the management of invasive alien species and the sequence in which they might be applied. This variety and lack of consistency creates uncertainty in the presentation and description of management in policy, science and practice. Here we expand on the existing description of the invasion process to develop an IAS management framework. We define the different forms of active management using a novel approach based on changes in species status, avoiding the need for stand-alone descriptions of management types, and provide a complete set of potential management activities. We propose a standardised set of management terminology as an emergent feature of this framework. We identified eight key forms of management: (1) pathway management, (2) interception, (3) limits to keeping, (4) secure keeping, (5) eradication, (6) complete reproductive removal, (7) containment and (8) suppression. We recognise four associated terms: prevention; captive management; rapid eradication; and long-term management, and note the use of impact mitigation and restoration as associated forms of management. We discuss the wider use of this framework and the supporting activities required to ensure management is well-targeted, cost-effective and makes best use of limited resources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2633-2645
Number of pages13
JournalBiological Invasions
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020


  • Containment
  • Eradication
  • Keeping
  • Management
  • Prevention
  • Removal
  • Terminology


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