A physiological toxicokinetic model for exogenous and endogenous ethylene and ethylene oxide in rat, mouse, and human: Formation of 2- hydroxyethyl adducts with hemoglobin and DNA

Gy A. Csanády, B. Denk, C. Pütz, P. E. Kreuzer, W. Kessler, C. Baur, M. L. Gargas, J. G. Filser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ethylene (ET) is a gaseous olefin of considerable industrial importance. It is also ubiquitous in the environment and is produced in plants, mammals, and humans. Uptake of exogenous ET occurs via inhalation. ET is biotransformed to ethylene oxide (EO), which is also an important volatile industrial chemical. This epoxide forms hydroxyethyl adducts with macromolecules such as hemoglobin and DNA and is mutagenic in vivo and in vitro and carcinogenic in experimental animals. It is metabolically eliminated by epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase and a small fraction is exhaled unchanged. To estimate the body burden of EO in rodents and human resulting from exposures to EO and ET, we developed a physiological toxicokinetic model. It describes uptake of ET and EO following inhalation and intraperitoneal administration, endogenous production of ET, enzyme- mediated oxidation of ET to EO, bioavailability of EO, EO metabolism, and formation of 2-hydroxyethyl adducts of hemoglobin and DNA. The model includes compartments representing arterial, venous, and pulmonary blood, liver, muscle, fat, and richly perfused tissues. Partition coefficients and metabolic parameters were derived from experimental data or published values. Model simulations were compared with a series of data collected in rodents or humans. The model describes well the uptake, elimination, and endogenous production of ET in all three species. Simulations of EO concentrations in blood and exhaled air of rodents and humans exposed to EO or ET were in good agreement with measured data. Using published rate constants for the formation of 2-hydroxyethyl adducts with hemoglobin and DNA, adduct levels were predicted and compared with values reported. In humans, predicted hemoglobin adducts resulting from exposure to EO or ET are in agreement with measured values. In rodents, simulated and measured DNA adduct levels agreed generally well, but hemoglobin adducts were underpredicted by a factor of 2 to 3. Obviously, there are inconsistencies between measured DNA and hemoglobin adduct levels. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume165
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 May 2000

Keywords

  • DNA adducts
  • Ethylene
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Hemoglobin adducts
  • Human
  • Inhalation
  • Mouse
  • Physiological toxicokinetic model
  • Rat
  • Toxicokinetics

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