A new approach to children's footwear based on foot type classification

M. Mauch, S. Grau, I. Krauss, C. Maiwald, T. Horstmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

Current shoe designs do not allow for the comprehensive 3-D foot shape, which means they are unable to reproduce the wide variability in foot morphology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to capture these variations of children's feet by classifying them into groups (types) and thereby provide a basis for their implementation in the design of children's shoes. The feet of 2867 German children were measured using a 3-D foot scanner. Cluster analysis was then applied to classify the feet into three different foot types. The characteristics of these foot types differ regarding their volume and forefoot shape both within and between shoe sizes. This new approach is in clear contrast to previous systems, since it captures the variability of foot morphology in a more comprehensive way by using a foot typing system and therefore paves the way for the unimpaired development of children's feet. Previous shoe systems do not allow for the wide variations in foot morphology. A new approach was developed regarding different morphological foot types based on 3-D measurements relevant in shoe construction. This can be directly applied to create specific designs for children's shoes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)999-1008
Number of pages10
JournalErgonomics
Volume52
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Children
  • Foot morphology
  • Foot types
  • Footwear
  • Shoes

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