## Abstract

In order to accurately compute scattered and radiated fields in the presence of arbitrary excitations, a low-frequency stable discretization of the right-hand side (RHS) of a quasi-Helmholtz preconditioned electric field integral equation (EFIE) on multiply-connected geometries is introduced, which avoids an ad hoc extraction of the static contribution of the RHS when tested with solenoidal functions. To obtain an excitation agnostic approach, our approach generalizes a technique to multiply-connected geometries where the testing of the RHS with loop functions is replaced by a testing of the normal component of the magnetic field with a scalar function. To this end, we leverage orientable global loop functions that are formed by a chain of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) functions around the holes and handles of the geometry, for which we introduce cap surfaces that allow to uniquely define a suitable scalar function. We show that this approach works with open and closed, orientable, and nonorientable geometries. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 9277-9288 |

Number of pages | 12 |

Journal | IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation |

Volume | 71 |

Issue number | 12 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Dec 2023 |

## Keywords

- Broadband
- electric field integral equation (EFIE)
- integral equations
- loop star
- loop tree
- low frequency
- multiply-connected
- multivalued
- quasi-helmholtz projectors