A Longitudinal Study of Student Hand Raising: Stability and Reciprocal Dynamics With Cognitive Elaboration and Academic Self-Concept

Ricardo Böheim, Martin Daumiller, Tina Seidel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hand raising is a key student behavior in everyday teacher-student interactions. Using a longitudinal research design, we explored the stability of hand raising and its directional relations with student learner characteristics over time. We observed students’ hand-raising behavior using video-recordings of 376 German high school students taken in multiple lessons during one school year. Results show that student hand raising seems to be a stable student behavior; nearly half of the variance observed is attributable to individual students, while less is attributable to lessons and classroom teachers. A latent cross-lagged panel analysis revealed reciprocal dynamics between hand-raising, cognitive, and motivational learner characteristics. Specifically, hand raising functioned as both an antecedent and an outcome of students’ cognitive elaboration, while frequent hand raising at the beginning of the school year positively predicted changes in students’ academic self-concept. Therefore, hand raising seems to be associated with opportunities that stimulate positive changes in students’ cognitive and competence-related learning experiences.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Keywords

  • cross-lagged analysis
  • student hand raising
  • teacher-student interactions
  • temporal stability
  • video research

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