A hybrid and poly-polish workflow for the complete and accurate assembly of phage genomes: a case study of ten przondoviruses

Claire K.A. Elek, Teagan L. Brown, Thanh Le Viet, Rhiannon Evans, David J. Baker, Andrea Telatin, Sumeet K. Tiwari, Haider Al-Khanaq, Gaëtan Thilliez, Robert A. Kingsley, Lindsay J. Hall, Mark A. Webber, Evelien M. Adriaenssens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Bacteriophages (phages) within the genus Przondovirus are T7-like podoviruses belonging to the subfamily Studiervirinae, within the family Autographiviridae, and have a highly conserved genome organisation. The genomes of these phages range from 37 to 42 kb in size, encode 50–60 genes and are characterised by the presence of direct terminal repeats (DTRs) flanking the linear chromosome. These DTRs are often deleted during short-read-only and hybrid assemblies. Moreover, long-read-only assemblies are often littered with sequencing and/or assembly errors and require additional curation. Here, we present the isolation and characterisation of ten novel przondoviruses targeting Klebsiella spp. We describe HYPPA, a HYbrid and Poly-polish Phage Assembly workflow, which utilises long-read assemblies in combination with short-read sequencing to resolve phage DTRs and correcting errors, negating the need for laborious primer walking and Sanger sequencing validation. Our assembly workflow utilised Oxford Nanopore Technologies for long-read sequencing for its accessibility, making it the more relevant long-read sequencing technology at this time, and Illumina DNA Prep for short-read sequencing, representing the most com-monly used technologies globally. Our data demonstrate the importance of careful curation of phage assemblies before publi-cation, and prior to using them for comparative genomics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number001065
JournalMicrobial Genomics
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Klebsiella
  • Przondovirus
  • assembly
  • bacteriophage
  • phage
  • sequencing


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