A game-theoretic approach for modelling pedestrian–vehicle conflict resolutions in uncontrolled traffic environments

Roja Ezzati Amini, Mohamed Abouelela, Ashish Dhamaniya, Bernhard Friedrich, Constantinos Antoniou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The interactions of motorised vehicles with pedestrians have always been a concern in traffic safety. The major threat to pedestrians comes from the high level of interactions imposed in uncontrolled traffic environments, where road users have to compete over the right of way. In the absence of traffic management and control systems in such traffic environments, road users have to negotiate the right of way while avoiding conflict. Furthermore, the high level of movement freedom and agility of pedestrians, as one of the interactive parties, can lead to exposing unpredictable behaviour on the road. Traffic interactions in uncontrolled mixed traffic environments will become more challenging by fully/partially automated driving systems’ deployment, where the intentions and decisions of interacting agents must be predicted/detected to avoid conflict and improve traffic safety and efficiency. This study aims to formulate a game-theoretic approach to model pedestrian interactions with passenger cars and light vehicles (two-wheel and three-wheel vehicles) in uncontrolled traffic settings. The proposed models employ the most influencing factors in the road user's decision and choice of strategy to predict their movements and conflict resolution strategies in traffic interactions. The models are applied to two data sets of video recordings collected in a shared space in Hamburg and a mid-block crossing area in Surat, India, including the interactions of pedestrians with passenger cars and light vehicles, respectively. The models are calibrated using the identified conflicts between users and their conflict resolution strategies in the data sets. The proposed models indicate satisfactory performances considering the stochastic behaviour of road users – particularly in the mid-block crossing area in India – and have the potential to be used as a behavioural model for automated driving systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107604
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
StatePublished - Aug 2024


  • Conflict resolution strategy
  • Game theory
  • Pedestrian–vehicle interactions
  • Traffic safety
  • Uncontrolled traffic environments


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