A defined range of guard cell calcium oscillation parameters encodes stomatal movements

Gethyn J. Allen, Sarah P. Chu, Carrie L. Harrington, Karin Schumacher, Thomas Hoffmann, Yat Y. Tang, Erwin Grill, Julian I. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

465 Scopus citations


Oscillations in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) are central regulators of signal transduction cascades1, although the roles of individual [Ca2+]cyt oscillation parameters in regulating downstream physiological responses remain largely unknown. In plants, guard cells integrate environmental and endogenous signals to regulate the aperture of stomatal pores2 and [Ca2+]cyt oscillations are a fundamental component of stomatal closure3,4. Here we systematically vary [Ca2+]cyt oscillation parameters in Arabidopsis guard cells using a 'calcium clamp'3,5-7 and show that [Ca2+]cyt controls stomatal closure by two mechanisms. Short-term 'calcium-reactive' closure occurred rapidly when [Ca2+]cyt was elevated, whereas the degree of long-term steady-state closure was 'calcium programmed' by [Ca2+]cyt oscillations within a defined range of frequency, transient number, duration and amplitude. Furthermore, in guard cells of the gca2 mutant8, [Ca2+]cyt oscillations induced by abscisic acid and extracellular calcium had increased frequencies and reduced transient duration, and steady-state stomatal closure was abolished. Experimentally imposing [Ca2+]cyt oscillations with parameters that elicited closure in the wild type restored long-term closure in gca2 stomata. These data show that a defined window of guard cell [Ca2+]cyt oscillation parameters programs changes in steady-state stomatal aperture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-1057
Number of pages5
Issue number6841
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2001


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