A Comparison of the Impact of Restrictive Diets on the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice

András Gregor, Laura Huber, Sandra Auernigg-Haselmaier, Felix Sternberg, Magdalena Billerhart, Andreas Dunkel, Veronika Somoza, Manfred Ogris, Barbara Kofler, Valter D. Longo, Jürgen König, Kalina Duszka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The rate of gut inflammatory diseases is growing in modern society. Previously, we showed that caloric restriction (CR) shapes gut microbiota composition and diminishes the expression of inflammatory factors along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The current project aimed to assess whether prominent dietary restrictive approaches, including intermittent fasting (IF), fasting-mimicking diet (FMD), and ketogenic diet (KD) have a similar effect as CR. We sought to verify which of the restrictive dietary approaches is the most potent and if the molecular pathways responsible for the impact of the diets overlap. We characterized the impact of the diets in the context of several dietary restriction-related parameters, including immune status in the GI tract; microbiota and its metabolites; bile acids (BAs); gut morphology; as well as autophagy-, mitochondria-, and energy restriction-related parameters. The effects of the various diets are very similar, particularly between CR, IF, and FMD. The occurrence of a 50 kDa truncated form of occludin, the composition of the microbiota, and BAs distinguished KD from the other diets. Based on the results, we were able to provide a comprehensive picture of the impact of restrictive diets on the gut, indicating that restrictive protocols aimed at improving gut health may be interchangeable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3120
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • caloric restriction
  • fasting
  • gastrointestinal tract


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