A Comparative Analysis of Partial Replacement of Yeast with CO2 Gas Hydrates as Leavening Agents in Baking of Wheat Bread

Shubhangi Srivastava, Ann Mary Kollemparembil, Viktoria Zettel, Timo Claßen, Mohammad Mobarak, Bernhard Gatternig, Antonio Delgado, Mario Jekle, Bernd Hitzmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine how CO2 gas hydrates (CO2 GH) are used in baking, notably in the creation of wheat bread, as a leavening agent. CO2 GH were produced with the use of food grade amino acids called promoters. The article emphasizes an interesting approach by using a hybrid combination of yeast and CO2 GH. The current study is based on a comparative evaluation of leavening agents in bread with (1) GH with promoters (20–70% GH) and (2) GH with promoters + yeast as a partial replacement (25–75%). The results obtained are then also compared with those of standard yeast bread along with the effects on wheat bread quality parameters such as volume, specific volume, hardness, moisture content, baking loss, and pore size. The GH bread with promoters had baking losses that were equivalent to the quality of traditional yeast bread. The breads with 60% and 70% GH with promoters had the best outcomes when compared with standard yeast bread. When a combination of CO2 GH with promoters (20–70%) and yeast (25–75%) was used in the study, the best combinations were obtained with 70% GH + 50% yeast and 70% GH + 75% yeast. Additionally, this article clarifies some potential future uses for CO2 GH as leavening agents in the bread industry, with a discussion of potential limitations as well as the cost efficiency of the developed technology. This information could help in the creation of new methods and standards for better CO2 GH selection for usage in other bakery goods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number653
JournalProcesses
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CO gas hydrates
  • amino acids
  • bread
  • leavening
  • promoters
  • yeast

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