4E assessment of power generation systems for a mobile house in emergency condition using solar energy: a case study

Alireza Refiei, Reyhaneh Loni, Gholamhassan Najafi, Evangelos Bellos, Mohsen Sharifpur, Dongsheng Wen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In this study, a solar parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) was evaluated as a heat source of a power generation system based on energy (E1), exergy (E2), environmental (E3), and economic (E4) analyses. Various configurations of power generation systems were investigated, including the solar SRC (SRC) and solar ORC (ORC). Water and R113 were used as heat transfer fluids of SRC and ORC system, respectively. It should be mentioned that the proposed solar systems were evaluated for providing the required power of a mobile house in an emergency condition such as an earthquake that was happened in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2016 with many homeless people. The PTC system was optically and thermally investigated based on sensitivity analysis. The optimized PTC system was assumed as a heat source of the RC with two various configurations for power generation. Then, the solar RC systems were investigated based on 4E analyses for providing the power of the mobile house based on various numbers of solar RC units. It was concluded that the solar SRC system could be recommended for achieving the highest 4E performance. The highest value of its energy efficiency was found at 24.60% and of his exergy at 26.37%. On the other hand, the ORC system has energy and exergy efficiencies at 17.64% and 18.91%, respectively, which are significantly lower than the efficiencies of the SRC system. The optimum heat source temperature for the SRC system is found at 650 K, while for the ORC system at 499 K. Moreover, the best economic performance was found with the SRC system with a payback period of 7.47 years. Finally, the CO2 mitigated per annum (φCO2) was estimated at 5.29 (tones year−1), and the carbon credit (ZCO2) was calculated equal to 76.71 ($ year−1).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)751-767
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • 4E analyses
  • Comparative study
  • Parabolic trough collector, ORC
  • Solar parametric analysis


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