The molecular structures of triaminosilanes

Gerald Huber, Norbert W. Mitzel, Annette Schier, Hubert Schmidbaur

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelBegutachtung

16 Zitate (Scopus)

Abstract

The structural chemistry of a series of triaminosilanes XSi(NR2)3 has been investigated in order to determine the ground-state configuration and conformation of these molecules. Theoretical studies and analogy with the isoelectronic XP(NR2)3 (X = CH2, O, Se, NSiMe3 etc.) and P(NR2)3 molecules suggest structures of Cs or C3 symmetry, with small energy differences between them. The molecular structure of HSi(NMe2)3 (1) has been determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study at low temperature. Surprisingly, the molecules have a non-standard conformation with an irregular orientation of the three NMe2 groups. The hydrido-, chloro-, methyl-, and vinyltris(morpholino)silanes XSi[N(CH2CH2)2O]3 (X = H, Cl, Me, Vi; 2-5) were prepared from the corresponding chlorosilanes and morpholine (2, 3) or lithium morpholide (4, 5). Their variable-temperature NMR spectra were studied and the molecular structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 2 has a molecular geometry approaching mirror symmetry with one morpholino group significantly different from the other two. This structure resembles that of isoelectronic tris(amino)phosphines. Compounds 3-5 have structures with a propeller-like arrangement of the three morpholino rings approaching C3 symmetry for this part of the molecules. The chloro compound 3 shows the shortest Si-N bond lengths (average 1.690 A), followed by 2 (1.708 Å), 5 (1.709 Å) and 4 (1.712 Å). The configuration of all nitrogen atoms is almost planar, with sums of the angles close to 360°, and the morpholino rings adopt a chair conformation. According to the solution NMR spectra the ring inversion is slow at low temperature, but the rings rotate freely about the Si-N bonds on the NMR time scale. The molecular structures are discussed in terms of steric and electronic effects of the substituents. Other model compounds, including (Me2N)3SiC6H4-4-Br (6), MeSi[N(CH2CH2)2NMe]3 (7) and PhSi[N(CH2)4]3 (8), could not be crystallized, but were characterized by their analytical and spectroscopic data. Keywords: Aminosilanes / Structure elucidation / Molecular conformations / Configuration determination / Nitrogen planarity / Silanes

OriginalspracheEnglisch
Seiten (von - bis)1159-1166
Seitenumfang8
FachzeitschriftChemische Berichte
Jahrgang130
Ausgabenummer8
DOIs
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 1997
Extern publiziertJa

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